14 days Maca supplementation improved 40 km cycling time trial performance and sexual desire in trained male cyclists. These promising results encourage long-term clinical studiesinvolving more volunteers, to further evaluate the efficacy of Maca in athletes and normal individuals to also explore its possible mechanisms of action.Study: A pilot investigation into the effect of Maca supplementation on physical activity and sexual desire in sportsmen. Stone M, Ibarra A, Roller M, Zangara A, Stevenson E. School of Psychology and Sports Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST, UK.
Maca for Bone Health Reducing/Preventing Osteoperosis
Studies have shown that red and black Maca were found to be the best at improving and protecting bone structure especially in mice who had their ovaries removed. Other studies have shown that black Maca increases bone strength and density. Red and black Maca have protective effects on bone architecture in OVX rats without showing estrogenic effects on uterine weight. Dietary supplementation with Maca may have potential effects on prevention from postmenopausal lipid abnormality and bone metabolism via a different mechanism from estrogen.Study: Effects of different varieties of Maca (Lepidiummeyenii) on bone structure in ovariectomized rats.Gonzales C, Cárdenas-Valencia I, Leiva-Revilla J, Anza-Ramirez C, Rubio J, Gonzales GF.Biological and Physiological Science Department, Universidad PeruanaCayetano Heredia, Lima,Peru.Study: Influence of Lepidiummeyemiiwalp on lipid and bone mass in ovariectomized rats. Wang Z, Yang J, Wang G, Bian L. Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.
Maca for Enhancing Mental Focus, Memory and Clarity
Maca help boost mental capacities such as memory, clarity and focus. Maca is especially recommended to take when there is a particular mental task to perform. The way Maca works is that the energy it provides is sustained and balanced. Black Maca improved experimental memory impairment induced by ethanol in a dose-response manner due, in part, to its content of polyphenolic compounds. Finally, black Maca improved experimental memory impairment induced by ovaryectomy, due in part, by its antioxidant and Ache inhibitory activities.Study:
Dose-response effect of black maca (Lepidiummeyenii) in mice with memoryimpairment induced by ethanol.
Rubio J, Yucra S, Gasco M, Gonzales GF. Department of Biological and Physiological Sciences,Faculty of Sciences and Philosophy and Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura, Universidad PeruanaCayetano Heredia , Lima , Peru.
Maca and Brain Function
The neuron protective activity of the plant Lepidiummeyenii (Maca) was studied in two experimental models: in vitro and in vivo. Crayfish neurons were pretreated with vehicle or the pentane extract from Maca, subjected to H(2)O(2), and their viability determined microscopically and chemically. A significant concentration-neuron protective effect relationship was demonstrated.Study:
Neuroprotective effects of Lepidiummeyenii (Maca).Pino-Figueroa A, Nguyen D, Maher TJ. Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
Maca and Bone Health
Beneficial effects of lepidiummeyenii (Maca) on psychological symptoms and measures of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women are not related to estrogen or androgen content.Brooks NA, Wilcox G, Walker KZ, Ashton JF, Cox MB, StojanovskaL.School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Victoria University, St. Albans, Victoria, Australia.
Summary:Preliminary findings show that Lepidiummeyenii (Maca)(3.5 g/d) reduces psychological symptoms, including anxiety and depression. It also lowers measures of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women independent of estrogenic and androgenic activity.Effect of three different cultivars of Lepidiummeyenii (maca) on learning and depression in ovariectomized mice.
Rubio J, Caldas M, Davila S, Gasco M, Gonzales GF. Department of Biological and Physiological Sciences, Faculty of Sciences and Philosophy and Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura, Universidad PeruanaCayetano Heredia, Lima.Summary: Black Maca appeared to have more beneficial effects on latent learning in OVX mice; meanwhile, all varieties of Maca showed antidepressant activity.
Maca and Menopause
Maca (lepidiummeyenii) for treatment of menopausal symptoms: A systemic review.
Lee MS, Shin BC, Yang EJ, Lim HJ, Ernst E. Division of Standard Research, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon, South Korea.
Summary:We searched 17 databases from their inception up to Junr 2011 and included all randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that compared any type of Maca-based intervention to a placebo for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. All studies were assessed for methodological quality using the Cochrane ‘risk of bias’ assessment tool. Four RCTs met all inclusion criteria. These RCTs tested the effects of Maca on menopausal symptoms in healthy perimenopausal, early postmenopausal, and late postmenopausal women. Using the Kupperman Menopausal Index and the Greene Climacteric Score, all RCTs demonstrated favorable effects of Maca.
Maca and Prostate
Effect of red maca (lepidiummeyenii) on prostate zinc levels in rats with testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia.
Gonzales C, Leiva-Revilla J, Rubio J, Grasco M, Gonzales GF. Department of Biological and Physiological Sciences, Faculty of Sciences and Philosophy and Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura, Universidad PeruanaCayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru.
Summary:In conclusion, red maca administered from day 1 to day 14 reduced prostate size and zinc levels in rats where prostatic hyperplasia was induced with TE.Antagonistic effect of Lepidiummeyenii (red maca) on prostatic hyperplasia in adult mice.
Malheiros-Pereira A,Grasco M, Gonzales GF, Gonzales-Castaneda C. Department of Biological and Physiological Sciences, Faculty of Sciences and Philosophy and Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura, Universidad PeruanaCayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru.
Summary:The plants from the Lepidium gender have demonstrated to have effect on the size of the prostate. Red Maca reduced prostate weight at 21 days of treatment. Weights of seminal vesicles, testis and epididymis were not affected by red maca treatment. The reduction in prostate size by red maca was 1.59 times.
Maca and Skin Protection
Photoprotection against the UVB-induced oxidative stress and epidermal damage in mice using leaves of three different varieties of Lepidiummeyenii (maca).
Gonzales-Castaneda C, Rivera V, Chirinos AL, Evelson P, Gonzales GF.Department of Biological and Physiological Sciences, Faculty of Sciences and Philosophy and Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura, Universidad PeruanaCayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru.
Summary: Mice treated with black maca showed the highest superoxide dismutase levels, and mice treated with black and yellow maca showed higher catalase levels in skin, whereas red maca protected the skin and liver against significant increases in the lipid peroxidation activity observed in the unprotected animals.